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What is a Quantum Computer?

Quantum computers are machines that use the properties of quantum physics to store data and perform calculations. It is being developed on the basic principles of quantum physics, which tries to explain matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic levels. The electron is processed by controlling the behavior of elementary particles such as protons. Quantum computers, which perform an unimaginable number of operations in the shortest possible time, have much higher processing power and performance than even the best supercomputers in this regard.

Quantum computing began in the early 1980s, when physicist Paul Benioff proposed a quantum mechanical model of the Turing machine. Physicist Richard Feynman and mathematician Yuri Manin later proved that it was impossible to simulate quantum systems on a classical computer and became pioneers of the idea of a quantum computer, suggesting that only a quantum computer had the potential to simulate things that a classical computer could not.

How does a Quantum Computer work?

Let's try to explain the working logic by making comparisons over classical computers. Classical computers (smartphone, laptop and desktop computers, etc.) they perform their operations with the help of “Bits” (Binary digit) that can be based on the values of 0 and 1, which we call the binary number system. This system is based on the fact that the electric current on a circuit is switched on and off with the help of a switch. The on state of the switch is expressed as 0, the off state is expressed as 1. A “Byte” is formed by combining eight 1s and 0s Decoupled. It consists of 1 Kilo Byte (KB) with 1024 Bytes, 1 Mega Byte (MB) with 1024 KB. All operations performed on the computer are performed by converting to 0 and 1 at the end.  In quantum computing, on the other hand, “Qubit” (Quantum-bit) is used instead of the concept of “Bit” as the basic unit of memory. In a classical computer operating with a binary code system, a bit can only be 1 or 0, while in a quantum computer, a qubit can consist of very different combinations of these 1 and 0 at the same time. This situation is expressed by “superposition”. Bloch Sphere - Representation of a qubit (Any point on a three-dimensional sphere shows the state of the qubit.)
Superposition (superposition principle) is a state in quantum physics in which two separate states apply to a particle at the same time. We can also call it a state of being both 1 and 0. We can also recall this situation from the double slit experiment (young's experiment), which showed that matter and energy can exhibit both wave and particle properties at the same time. Both Schrödinger's Cat experiment and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Law try to explain this superposition state.

Qubits allow a lot of possibilities, since they can simultaneously take both the value 0 and the value 1 (it can happen in both cases at the same time). In other words, 1s and 0s or 0s and 1s can represent information simultaneously. Thanks to these possibilities, quantum machines can calculate all the probabilities in a calculation at once and process much faster than classical computers. In a quantum computer, operations are performed simultaneously instead of being sequenced, unlike classical computers.

In short, quantum computers work not according to the electric current, but with a system based on the physical properties of subatomic particles such as electrons and protons. Thanks to this, they can work at a much greater speed at the subatomic level than classical computers from a much smaller space. Quantum computers have an extremely sensitive structure, so they require special design. Data Storage in Quantum

In classical computers, data is stored on the hard disk in the form of +/- load, which we know as 1 and 0s, by matching. In quantum computers, on the other hand, data can be stored in an atomic nucleus, a photon, or an electron.
The electrons contained in the atom move like magnets due to the magnetic field they have. The property of an electron to behave like a magnet is called “spin” (the angular momentum of a particle in physics). When you put an electron completely isolated from external factors into a magnetic field, they change direction in the direction of the magnetic field under the influence of the magnetic force. That is, they can be found either in the ”spin up“ (upward direction) or in the ”spin down" (downward direction) state. This situation shows us that a single qubit can carry much more information than a standard bit, which means that the “0” and “1” states in a classical computer can have both at the same time, making more possibilities and combinations possible.

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